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Original title: 

THE GLOBAL COVENANT: 

Human Conduct in a World of States was originally published in English in 2000. 

This translation is published by arrangement with Oxford University Press. 

Copyright © R. H. Jackson 2000 

All rights reserved. Authorized translation from the English language edition Published by 

Oxford University Press 

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(2003 - jk 1423 0l5L*ll © 

6672 . v-c^" 'kl^ && £• -^ «-iJUL«JI J,> JU-i i<o,*JI o^JI aOLJI «. 11452 ,yUJI 

Obeikan Publishers, North King Fahd Road, P.O.Box 6672, Riyadh 1 1452, Saudi Arabia 

f 2003 . > 1423 JjVl tjyJI i*-UI 

ISBN 9960-40-226-6 

p- 24 x 17 i^y, 824 

ISBN 9960-40-226-6 :ciL.*j 

.1989- ifJUJI oULJI _ 4 SJjjJI ol.li.-.JI _ 3 <Jj.dl oU%JI - 2 iJ^JI . 1 

1423 _ 4300 : ^iJb.yi ^j j 1423 _ 4300 327 ^.j 

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All rights reserved. No parts of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or 
transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or 
otherwise, without the prior permission of the publishers. 



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39 <sjV*» A*>» 

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(.Ll ^J! Ljj^jjL; ij^ ^1 Jus gentium ^^LJ\ _pL- ^Iji ^ iS^r^^j 

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IS Lwiejjli Ltj^_^a t^LJL t<u^?^jj jjiaJlj j^Jl ^jlc- iJb iJLJj <LJl>j^ 

j^j ,»_g_si*-> t ^-i^-LJl dliJjl J^is (j> ^^JL^Ja (J^r^d *JaiJl oJl* JLLp 

oIpjj jL Jji ^ JJI ^jJLj Jji>c<Jl dLLil ^_~p : i _ r «_ : JaJl jjJliJl (jMi-l 

jj . <w?L>Jl 'LwitjjLJl -_gijjji j\ ilsUiiil - > _^j|^»_o ^p ^Ij'.ll c_i ^ , jf ? .j «L*J| 
iik>t-o «-lj^-l ^ LjLJ^II cliLaiJlj oljl./?.->Jl iL»j>- ^1 iii>l>- oi^>»^ o^JaJ 
L^X-Jblij ijLvJ^/l OtjJs p^J (_$JLa ^> t_i^l5o ioL^-« oUjI ^j (^JL>Jl -y> 

*>\_^s . <jj-io /*-jM* \-fcj^ '*-0?a^- l yf- ' L-j^r^ ^rHj^ »jJ*J J^ -J"-*- 1 ' <— «->l5w 

J." f-j^l tiUS A^> ^Laj j^JJI ^^>^\ ^jAJcS] l^oyLA LsAjI C-^~J l^Jl ^P 

aJ^jJI oli*>UJli . frLLJlj jj^Vl J^— (_yi ^yf^i *^ ^ji p'j-^ l£j-"I i-L- 



47 «sjW-» jV^IN 

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oli*>L^Nl dLL" fl L^^jJb^lj ^Jy^\ *U^Nlj UJJlj il^iJlj ^lilj 

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. L^wJaj LfJljJ jl oluldl dlb" «_«i 

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jl iJLJL>- Jl~5LJ ^j../?.2.aj JuLo-a «4^JjjJI JjlLwaX j^^^ oLi IJL^aj 
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oJu>*^> <uiaJlS' KiJL-Jl o -uul' j^ U<ijl °~^-*-! W^' «^ ' (jrr*^ J"*^ ,J-b>e_»Jl 

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tpL-a <j!>U-l syb ^ *jj>- jjt> (_$ Ul ^jjJl *lj->-)M a^J-*^ • ^*j**-U 
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iLJiJ Lkl^o b^ ^1 o—Jii iJdl oliiOUl L.1 . J*aiJl IJl^J a^ ^ JJl 
J*>U- Lgijj<J Uxj L5 i<Jjj«Jl <jl£~<> L^JLc- Aji ^1 LiajcJlj iol^>-^l ^oUuJl 

^jl*-<jl iL«j>- wLjA^Oj (OSCE) IjjjjI ,_yS jjLcJlj J-o^l ^U-la.'-* Cwoli 

jjti^ <*_, *^j| ^JJ| ((^^SL^JU jl_^» ^ LJjjJI JjtL^J ^L-L-Vl LjI^?-N! 

I^yMl J-JLwJL idiljl IfOjjl .{A915 ~<~j*) A^biJl ^C^Ajt iLij 

iSiLJl ^i o>l£!l (jji>Jl ?\j>-\ ca^IScuJI SjLJI (1) 

il^loic-.! j\ ijill JbJ^Jl j* fl^^l (2) 

iijJbJl ilLfjl jlj^- *Ap (3) 

* JjjJl S-^j [oL*=>] (4) 
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i iJl^ljdl jj_^Jl ^ ji-JeJl *0p (6) 

* jL*J)M Jjj^ ^1^1 (7) 
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49 <s jV-» j\^\ 

^JjjJl^jjbdl (9) 
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( _ s 1p tlgil . Ujjjl J* jjLcJlj ^Vl iUij> ^Jl ^j^JI iJL_^Jl LS^j-olj 
(3^° (_y^ °jj^ /*■*'.>* (j-^' ^"-^ <L»JjjoI <_jliw4 j-kj-^ J^~-J tdlii jwo -iJiJl 

jl £_si>l_jl ^ . <U f jjjlj jl JjjJl JUjZ ^JUl ^jjJl *_«J^<JJ ^Ij^-)/! 

L$Jlc- iiU^Jlj JjjJJ iLil£uJl SiL^Jl ^j-jj&j jLcJ *js.Vl aLJI _^A*-Jl 

ijjjb- jl 7s~*^0 . JjjJl ^j-j olpljJU <U<Jl~Jl Ajj-^oJIj i>JLvw<JI a^iil ^..Ij.'Jj 

^ Jjjdl ^Lk^Jl JUp! Jjjb- JU- SjjL aJL^. o^w=>! jl o^J U jLJNl 

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^ <£~Jl i^J^lj ^Pjdl oOpLwJIj <wiyj *MUl ^^Lp Jj>U>Jl JLo jLi oli 
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^-Jal^^j . JJS ^ <>-jJlJ! ^L-S/l ^oIj^JI L^JJc^J ^ydl (^Jl^^Jl J*>L^>-I 



.10 t ( f 1999 i .1 .0 .1 . f tLJ) UWI ixJaJl cLujjI^OjUJlj^Vl iJi^ JJi (21) 



^jj» t ^-j A\ 50 

Jl* <J>-S/I ^oladlj oW^-)M y ^J^O*! Js\ jyL, jl t JUJl ix~k> <.*jj\ 
c_ijj>- oLSliJl ^y c-ojj U5 ^tJL^JI f-\j+a}\ ^ ojiJl j»Ijl>cu>.L SJLLcuJl diJb 
Jl^p t_iijJl i_ij_~-j .jus in bello : ^jj-^Jl aJU- jjJLi j_Jlj_« ^ La^^pj 
jl itjj-lj-oJl ( _ r » j-SUJl aJu\ JJCjJI jl ^J . 4_l_JL>Jl Jj ,/? a II ^ji I g . A . . 

iijjJl oLwwu lJLy> L>jk t^r^V iw~Jydl 11a t-j.sa-1 ^jjI>^ i_$^>o>- oj 
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iijjJl oiLwJ j^L-^l l-L^Jl J-b>o iJliJl SiLJl oi_a> ya /v^l xJla . oJb»JLJl 
ojiJlj JUJl^jJI yp OjjJl » g"li*>lc- ^» «-Lip*yi ,*—»->- (V^>>j ^Jj^<» : J JL i| 
IJlaj . «iJj^ <j_V ^L-Jl J"jUi-.Vl j! i-_*_JL5yt SJL^jJl ju* lgJL-*^J j! 
i*jLi!l a15_jjJI ijJb»Jl *IL (j-owij (^JUI uti possidetis juris jLw 4_>^_aI jl5"Jj 

*JIp i_L^> jjl*^ Lg.»..fli iJliJl o^Ljl j» *jLJI JuJl Ui . (_$j^-l tij^ -ij-^*^l 



dl j— & . JLLol j cj|jjj-ij jj__JjL^ jLiiJI ^> J^ i^U^j 3-^JL«Jl Loj^jJI <u><J ^j-ij 

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.68 (/>1995 t^^ ^yi—^^j jjjjL- 5j1 : ±3jjj_j_j) j-^JUJI *-SU«J1 ii>J ^ij-^ - i-.»JL««JI 



51 <sj\--» j\^\ 

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^:UI J^iJli .^jjJl ^Sflj f!*Ul J^ Ve..k:.J\ v-L-Vl oW^V! 
y Vlj a>LJI j^ Ulii a>«JL~JI SjiJl j»|jt^— I y VI Lr -^y Ji^H f-;^~ " 

oloJUl t£*b>-l Jj«J . 4jJO^> ijji 4jI iwJU- y JbJ^iJ U^jJU Lo li| ^yjjjjl 

y _ r iSUJ yVl (j-i^t^ «jL^ ^5* <_^^l (^j-^' ^«-«^>m_U iujSj^Jl ajjL«^JI 

j*S- ^ ilSjjJl JjJLsdl j^P 4j>JL~<J| SjjjJl »|jL>tLwul ^ AjJLiiJl iljjJl (jjjJbo 

ijx-jljJl o^LJl i^.^-j.oj '(*j-2j *Lvo_pVI JjjJU .^^^ijJl j_p f-liJJl iJL>- 
^jjJl yVlj jJlJI Jls> iili^Jl ^ iJ/Vl iJjj^Jl ^Lisi>L» t^j^Jlj 
cl^j OUa-^Vl <_<J^ ,y~>- _^J-Vl jl ^yip ililj^JLj <.,yN\ (_rJ^» ^^p 

"ft c 

oljly J_^-4j" U<ajl *L<a*Vl Jj-Ul py^J ■ (| Lf^ *uLj cJ^-va^ LJ} aJjJ~~«JI 

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^s> ^L^Jl jl cSV^ 1 ^J-^J' J*^ J~«rr- Jl^Jl I-^a ^ ^^ V» :(51 
^ f^UipVl JjjJl ijXs^\ Jl*s> ?JLwo fj^«-» ^jJl^ JU- ^ J-vSlI (J^aJI 

k>_jjjj2]\ ^ol^Jl iUJl ,_y]l j^L Ji yVl ^^Ji*^ OjS^j jl ^1 <.Ia>JlJ)\ ^Vl 

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U^i (_yJj-^l j^i^Jl ^ jus ad belium t^yJI ^1 f-^j^Ul J^ Oy\i jJL>»j 

^1 >jj>JJI 5JL^ j^S^ ,_ji3l ^L—L-^l JlpIjuJI il^L- <J\ : <»1945 i-w- Ju«_' 

. aj^L^JI JjjJl ^ cjli*>UJl ^ i^JLw<Jl SjiJl Aljuki^l 



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(1aS)M jM JUpVi JjJ^r j- ii^l dUS ks.,.... : jl ^^ i)>j J^ JU;Ml 
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jl diii jLi j^o . ^/ta'.W J^>- j-p *AjJ-> i^iSVL ooj../»."Jl iU-ipl r^il jj-« 

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JJLi j^ ^ju> i»j . oij^-j^Jl ^U^Jl ^Jl ^L^jJL 4jLi -^p ^L»aI JJL M ioUJl 

jl cui-J Lo LgJl j^p Ij-Lp )«_»*pLjIj 1-*^-^ jV*^— jIj )-^p (X-jL-JI jjj-«Jl ^i 
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53 tfjU-a j\j^\ 

. Z)jJ3\ oli^UJl ^jb /»LiaI ^ JJlS jJi S/l 

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JiLiJ ^1 i-«lS3l iJ^iUJlj ii*te-Vl ^-jlLjl iU^ ^1 : SJu>cJl *J*i\ y\£j 
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^aW r - -, «\\ 54 

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Jlp ^ dJJS j^kj . £)jjdl c3*^>-'bU J-^-Jl ^LkJL Jsj^Jl J^ ^"j 

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. l^*5C>J aj^UJI j^IjVI ^j ^sj>-\ Jj^ J^-tf ^r-L^ 1 -; Jj-^1 

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JLc- ajI . U^jI cjLJijxdlj ^IsUmJUj Jj ^^J^Lj iais ^^J l__^-lj UJU- <i^>«j 



i(/>1982 ij^ (.ojJ) t JjOJI j-j jl^pJl : 4-—U^JLiJiJl tj^-Jplj .1 j-. i_^-U ^LJVl (23) 

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diJi ^jj j-lJl 1$j «JLkvij ,_jJl Sj-o-Jl oUUiJl 4_ik>«^J i^.lj.5 Ml t^x^ 

jl ,,-fJ.p- (j-Ai. t j^J ts-Mjjk '4^-lji L«J i-lji r^L-J^I iijJLJl j» JU«^JI 

*-« (^jLJl rpA -»_gj Jj N . iJLJLo^o (Jj^-\ *L-iVj tjt-fjli*^ ^j 4-JjiO.j.U.u 

iitAp oli oljl j SUuL j^a j^JLk» . U?j-^ai>- LgjLjSo- *» 4 i^^-l jloL 
flj->l ^jL~j j j » 1 W „n i . , g ■ » .t ^ Vf-jJl j jJ>\-»-e-l Ojlj t—Jb^l dJLlJjL; 
( _ r iUJl yy» 4JU- ^i t AS'jiJLo ojj-^L) jl ^i^i^ 4 iL>-jUJl 5-w-LwJl CjIIjUJ 

^ Ui^iSV J^ 4oUUiJlj oL-L-Jlj oljl^ill dJLL" ^ ^SOJ 

^ ^ (i">U-^|)) jl J^i Jjj . pL^.%! JjIS ^ ^jLj«^ /^LW 4 4^i>Jl 

4JI j;P ia^iJl J^>-^l ^ JJ a* J15" cUUi jl £~>w*' . (3) «JiLuJl U-UJl 



^hi'ill ^»i>m 4jL^ _^l .oIa (^»-_jJ_ > _-, j _JI) ^pU^-^I ,>JljiJl *iL ^^j JjU ^.A^o (2) 
• (_> — «L>»Jl J-Aall (j«1971 t^^J ^Ji^jijjj oy~Jji '. 0J-~Jji) 0^»^*' y*- 1 — ' i**j^>-j 
i^-J^j UbOJl) i^—^ij 60jJL»- ijtJjt^^ o"^li«j i-L-Jl ^ iJ^iJI tO^-Uji JSCL. (3) 

.297 i( f 1991 ^y.Jj^ 



<i-ij\Iij ,jjwu\ p n" *^ ft» *ajij bo 

Jj iJLJl ii*>U «iL»L>ttJl»_i . ilJjjJl (j*Ai>-Vl Jp jS\ iyi JX>- J-iaX> 

\j ./? ; c- tjl^pJlj JiLaJl JLJLj t J-^I^Jl J^Aj . <LJiLdl J.P ;*Lk*Jlj 
jl JiUJ! JIp LoL-I ^jla'." AJJjjdl cjli%*Jlj . iLaU^Jl j-^Lc- -y> \-ij5y 

cj^U- J V iL$JL-jL_aj itaLuJl ilab^Jl i$^^> Jp ?y^t <-i-u-^>Jl Jj-^1 

. i^L-^l aJIjSj^ J Jj Ai^£ 

J»Lu±JV' (^Jj^' is! itnll ojaj <ft jin 

jl aj->-j li Ij-j-owo LoL*J} *}L*_JLa L£jL/»jj ilJjjJl CjUMxJI (V-J-Vi-; t«JjjJl 

LKj Lsli ApjjJl oli^Ul jl; : j^l _^JI Jp ^MJI jl cj^jJI diL' 

.Vjl t^JLJj J?LlJ iw>-jUJl A^L^Jli ^aJLJ^I oli*>UJl Jl^il -^ *>lSLi 

_ Lf.s-b.o-a j JjjJl **>LSj _ i^LUl «j_s^ ^y> »LJLj tilijjJl oli*>L*Jl jj^Jj 

p-^JLJyj »^;UjL^j .^liliJlj ^Lc-I^j (,^%iljo>j A^jNiLa j^SJ (^jJJI 

ij»La j! <l*_L> Jj^ ^LJI dkJj! ^j \Jj^j LiUi tUJU t^j-^l ols%JI 
c^ji»-l <l^>- /w« i i ' <wL>tJlj *-4-?- /w» L-JI oJljLkJI t oLpLlJIj cjL-uL^JI 

t * * * 

^y> c_JiiJl j^j-« (U^^J i;J^L>-l LLsii JLc- .L*jIj tLwaj^?- il)jjJI oli*>l*Jl 



69 a^j^W <jjL^\ cAM^N 

j\ aj>«_L^»JI aj_dJL JuJ^jJl Jlp t <L— Loj_LjJI ^j-L^ t4_w>-jL>Jl 4-~-L_~Jl 
jl . -lJI p^-jJL ti^S/l <l]jjJl oLJU-aJl ^ U^J> JIpj iL^oIj^jlm-I 
o^>-j>» l^m (*^ • -^^^-JL) ^*hj^ <*~**ijjo t L*oL*t » *^oJl>JI JjJul *-^jj>*-oJi 

<ls<a-><Jl L^L^Jl Jj^U-^l ^ 4_^>U- <b^-j-J ^Jlp iIajL- tilJjjJl C->lS*>bJl 

UJLuiJI LbUu I^.^^j 4Jj Jl olSMsdl - 1 

?u>t^ /P^ i° j^-i^Jij oj j'/7"o-ll OjjJI olit>\jJli '. I g . A. . Aaij 1 g AS. ^jL*Jl 

oLi^U))j ((^LJI isLlJ)) L"jLpj . v 1 — ^1 oli^UJl pj^i Jb-I S/l cu~J 
LlS jl Ul pjo' V ^IJjaJI oli*>U)l jl ii-i>- -uSLJ jLloA^x^. «^L^JI 
r-jb>- *JL ilJjjJl cjlit>UJl v-sljjsl yo tijls y U . biJij jl [LSCjUjJjI] 
?-jU- L^jijj -b^-jJ ^Jj^ «<Ljj» j' <( OjJi^>» yo L. . ^LJ^I ^i^./?."Jl 5yb 
1 — 'jj ,3 ((<upUki>-l (_$jj" ajI "UJ ,1—J • <*-*^>vjj <uDjj^«oj jL*J 2I jl J (JUaJ 
jl |>^JLl«J jl 43^)v«JI (_$j^ (t^^Jl /"tJU^^j f«-c-j («jIjoI <L*L~o y^jj <uAj>- i_)L»«l 
l^W" £*L? eS' <J' ^ cp^ £-*'j ■^^ JS| ^j • p-f-v-rlj-* jl (»-$Jbl jl ^^jIpj 

jjjJl Jl b^j JLiLSUi . <L«jJl bJL?- cjU^-- ci-^-i J^-^ i_r^' ty^^' 
tljjk tJLiLS'Lo jlf . aJLJ^JI jjj^iJl J -Fortuna- ia^Jlj isJLvai! 



.25 



: J-aJI Cp 1961 t.^~Sjj jjjjCj : ijjjjAJ^jU) Jjj .r ij~i>^ '^j" 'lj^^^ • < - ) ^ 



frLi; tu> .^^jUaLiJ i a^n'y j>Cj ; jJwl jl ^^1 j-li 4 j j^So^l* jjxLJl jl -la.-*-; 

^ OJl^J *L-i! iUJ . L^iil _ Ji^Jl ^Jb ^ ^Nl >-a,^.-..ll 

^ i iijJl ^ jJi (_$U l$J k : .ia>*Jl jl Lf«ijJ «-Ja.-uJ ^ jri^r*-' f -4 ^^^ 
oL- j-a iJaj-^LJlj o^jJl>- <L»_~- LfJl . IjjlpLj jl ^Ijus-^Ij (J--UI jLi 

AjI ^ US' tiJLJ^I Cjli%Jl ^y S^ljJl aJjfc ^ .Li<jjl: A^jjJl oli*>UJl 
*JJJ jV iLU i*SjX<JI ^^P j\ ejjla'.oll j;P dL^Vl jjSi t(^^-l ioL-Jj oyb 

frL^I tjjjjU J^ ^^U (_^L>LJI p^«-!l Ji* : jLi <_p 4~jJ j! jljul UJji 
i^pLajL^-l <j^-Jlj-» UajI 4JLS . ^Lij-^JI iL>«J^I dJLSwiJj iS^jLJl k_>^>«Jl 

lipl^sj Jb»iN e.Sj,./?.fl< ^^P twil^P olpLJaJl j^l ^ i*Slj [a^jJ^w-j^.] 
V aij^JLjl _^P ^ljLJI jl j^S. . ipUzxi^l (3I^--Nl ^ *&J> J-***^ ^ 
jLk^.1 jl Jli . LfjL--l dhj*j ^J\ \jji\j ^Ul aSjLI* jji <Ji>*£ jl ,*.Ja,uJ 

J^. ^Jdl r !*£U NljS-l Nl ^-J dJJi j! jj> . ^Jikllj ^yJL i'j^Z ^LJI 
ipl_Jl j_o ol a i ,ji II j-o ^j-sA^tj V iJi-f- J*>L>- ^ 1$-.-:-"^ (W jL«— ^1 jj 
<J U J5 <L~»*>U ^ eJuj jLJ^I XajS Jj N . iJLJ} oLjy L^j| : ^jjLlilj 
jj^L^a jji -^^r»^j * < _s**' dr° ^* • ^akn'oll J-^-> -^ ilJjJi!l cjU*>\jJL) 5Ju<s 

S 

pDj\j^oi\j . AZJjj^utj <*^>-jjj jLJ^ll , <; .<v.,<?7l Ajw»1> Cj\s-j*P y* ill CU»~J 

luJlSo . e-hiuJ cu-~J iJMl 4j^5L~«JI oL?- J i^ScJl /wo La -pj LjIS <>tx> »v«Jl 
j^JuVlj JjJ^Jl iajjjJ jl iilj-il ^s-U ^jwiJl jUaJLj «S_JT»j M^a^ 

*\j)l\ A>u ^l AiLs>} t^yJjjJl ^Jj^jl kljl^ O ^Iaj U-f« ">Ui^ j} 



C~-J Lf^Jj ^LJl (>• _rrr^ ■ iJ - p <_)-*■* p-Li* ,_y* i~*UiJ ,_y^; ilLj» B j| iiLL« . I . ^j Jj-5j (5) 

.37 t((.1973 ty^lSLi U.U- 



71 Uj^\ "^A^4\ cNi^N 

^c- i!jjJl jij-i" iSy^i • ^tf'^l oJla (^J <_y*^ ' ^ ■.^;i ilSwxtA^Jl <L»iljJl 
^j^t-oJI <_,£*- L 4^151 ^-jJ li*Ai- i*U*j^I jv^j ^LJLj J-pLs j-yai^ LgJl 

. jJLjI /^C- ■U-a. " ^.,^» ejj ,J1 i t Lo AJLjiaj t, I $ 1 o P ^ijLoJ JjJjl jL) l ^JjjJl 
jl jS- (. «JL) *_oJc>t» 2 l « UJ-i *-»I>t*' 4jLs<3jJ ^JJ-Ul x_»I>t*JI /fp jjjjj>t^> 

><-«J^o jl iUxP^I Ik?- ^J bij^jj UJL^aj jl jj^J N J^l>wJl ^^*Jl d*Ji 

dUS ^ ^v^jLl^ lj-~J ^-Ul jt jl ^LJL «J ii*>lp N f-^ jjk JjjJl 

jl *LJll C^~J Jj-Ulj . L-UI , ./}" jl ^yi ol*^I>t<Jl _pLJ Jb *y . «_«Jo>t4Jl 
\~p\yj j\ ( _ 5 i- s <aJ j! (JlSco jl *.Jh.~*...J M JjjJli . Ljjlj Jl>*j oliL5 jl (j^l^l 
jl *JaX~J *y U5 . LaO^-j <_j^*a^ jl ^^Ip ejili JjjJl C~~J . UJj-j ^JLJL; 
^iLJI l g ... -"j-J 4_^»«Lww« Juljj )f I ^_* jl (JjjJLi . L»Jl?-j <Oj_p-j_« jj_£j 

JjNjJ^I jV Jy^iUlj 7-^r^Jl j-» fr^ ^l i>-l>o ikiJl eJlA dj& Ji 
^^JLJ Lo-S' IJu>- J g ... y>\ LjJlS Jl>uj *L_Jil JjjJl jl j»_*jjJl oil*- ' ■ l» « ^1 
«JjjUl jl Nj . j^jLLJl oljio V*' ^J-^' (5^ i_r^' *^r*-~" 4~*iljJl ejj^aJl 

j\ \j^J> j\ AS* dJULJ N ^ . Ujl^j SApU o~J Lfll . Ls-Ulj £y>c3 N 
P^jis-ij M (_$^i °^i-^ [L5vJl5L«] Ul UL5 <JjjJl c~w«J . i^a^xj *J-;^ jl «-sljl 
. ([s^jjj^;) iSy^~ 4 ^ > jl ^Ar'J ^^ C-^~J l^Jl L*5 . *L«i!lj JL?- Jl a U....1 
^r sJ -fr=rj ^bb "^j jLJ)/l J Li- ^Lilj ^> y> L3JI -^L-Jl r^o L3JI 

^Ls- , . 1V,.:.I j^Jl L^a^l e^So S/l jAy*}>\ >±~>- y> o J . U^-T ^1 LjJjl 

^ Lv5 (jxLJl ^ j^lSJI jiio o- 1 ^- e^^xi Ljjl . V^juj^sjj ioLJl jl aS^^^!.!^! 

'L~~~^j^O \JCCj\ *-*& y> ^ji^&j aS^i L^J| . JLSb l^j L>ojLi l-V^- 4~~x*£> ~oS^S 
(_gj^JI JsLijjl ApLsi» iwSJ-gj AJLjco ^jL~oJ iJ jJLj — jLx^o ■iLoJLPb ^iSu" <U»*iL»«i 

«ilLA» Ji>J LtsJ. JjjJl /^^ (j^J . JjJLS" Jj^ «J5La» jl «»ik;» ^1 i«j 



Vy o JJI J^*_m2 ts - ^ ^~^l~"" J I 5 -SvjJjl oJ_A .ijaJCJiS r j aj>- ,j->JJ i_J 9-*~J 

<uJU *LJ jLJ^I JJLj ^JUl I»LiJl jl» :%*l» J^U^I JU U^ JaiiJl 

laLijjl l-L* ^P (_£ji AjI <U-j (j~J ■ ^=>- isLU jjfc jl^-aJUot) jlJ«^»Jl ( _> l jjbL!l 
^yJo jl ( _ r Lp i jJJj jl iflj^kJl oJl^-j iiJLL«>J jl ( _U- a^^y-^J j\ 4JJl*j j\ 4j -_^><Jo 
< J^j M lijk jl 1-/WIJ jl ^Ji\ f-jLj -J . <iy>-\ f-y jji jJUjI ^ f-jJl I jjfc 

^jJL, |J_J^ |»ljjJl J^ JL± *S*i «<J jl^j L> J^ jV >-» jLvJNl jl 
. jLJNl <Jz"j*Ai JL>«^ ^ J^l^Jl .uJLJIj iLl^JI aj^^JI ii^U^o t*>L^I c~iw 

^yt^Ja *^>- (_^l <U3 (j-~Jj LJ^jJu L<Jlp '(_$^"' ojLc«j t Oj jJl oli*>\-*Jl jj5\j 

^ lg-L*i Jj^jj iJLJ^M jjjJJl ^ «<LpLki>-l <_^_^» ^>j^r-jj (^y^-jJj^j-Jl) 

,_JLJI -jl .,<? a l^o -J 4J| ia_>"5J ^_)jJhj\JI jL«_J j/Ll 4-_>iJI oJjJlJo yjLJI jaij J j 

toJJ^juJl cjUIj^-NI iL»^>- ^1 j~£\ Uj| (i^LJl Js>LtJ» Jjil ,j~?-j 
3-^oJ (jS^-*j • inter homines ^^Jl ^ U ^ ti^r^j ^i : (»-f«-»j L r u ^' j^ 



.316 (.315 t(»1975 l ^y^j^yii^ ijy^Sj\ : jxJ) ^jjlill ij£i ajydjS .r .j (6) 
.((.1975 t^^ JjJJj!A5 ^j_^L_Sjl) JLJVI ^_,JlJ! je toyi^jl j. (7) 



73 "^\ ol\ ^UiW o\i^i\ 

^UU jlxij jl » : ig:...'i N j^i . j-^j^UI ^1 *twMl ^ j^jjJ-^L) 4jjlL> 

Lnjjjj j Ji-JI AS'u jl /» -la"... i /y*-> ■ CjLilj_~>tjlj ,J-L*^j Lo-S /Wr^-I 

. ijJJi J_*_aJj 4JJJL0 oLjlj_^>t5 la la S llj <_>*>LSCJl ^j-^-fl-J jl » ; la: ...ij . vlDi 
di-lj jl _~i^ : jLs-Vl { ya-»-> - ^ -^-y^S t>Lr*~' L-.UI IjJJLil ^LJl jl £c_^>W 
jl *_«j . ~^jj>-j /op-il (V-I^Jl ~**iy*J ■n-ij^fi jLxJ| LfJ i 4*j2J>\^-A <L*jL«^> 

,>/2-*-> ^_9 o5y>-y C-J'j L»J U>ejjIj Oj^Sn^oj jULll il 4_*_wulj 4^ujL*^J 4j.5j^_*jI 

5jjw2j UL~J} ^-v=j *if ty^^' i»L£jJl jls iia~*jNl JjjJLJlj ^Ay^ tlr*^^' 
. ^jLj^I iol^^Jlj ij^>Jl (_s~*^ -^^ c^ (*^i t* - ' ^ ^-°^ 

wJL> *>o jl <U~»jLo_a » .»T..,i if JsLJL) iA (_£-Ul — jl 4>xJlj L/jIjJI ASwj 

SJjUI oL»_~Jl (_$Jl>-I _ ,*-£*-<= J^LiJlj jt-fJ^ ?-bjjJ"yi ^J-p ^jJa^jj (^jj->-l 

ISoj-i ojLlpI ^jIxj b> ^^a^i »t» J^sljlJl jl jljjdl frills . ^LJ^M -X5LU 
jl »,.,»"....,'i 1 ■/•'->- ■"' ojLlpI (c^xj ; jljj>JI jl t^oJj>jl jl A^liXJI ^ Oo^Ji jl 
. a- .xj Jl /»-?" j^° <J*A^- jV 5 Jl Oj-iL~« ojj ./? i L*M t 4JwO *_«~s*o jlj LlwJo < U> | d' 

dJJuj tsiU- frIW.tfjJl j^p u g., ; ,i U ^ J^jIjJIj iwil^^xp^l i^LUl J-iL^j • Lo 
ia*>U ^jjJl JaUJl y j~S jJJdj . &jj}\ oli">UJl jtj>- ji^ oUsLlJl 

/-P <Jcl*0 y ^xJl i^-LojJujJl «_« JL>J| ^A jUo jl Ja^-">LJ| /^ . J_v?ljJl) 

. (8) «JjjJl jlj^»_; SjlJL?- 

•jp /So j &jjr^> /j& /jij>~\ / t/J Cjli*>L«jl j-« <ulu>«^ Lc-IjjI (j^uJI ^jLj 
jJivoj f»-fJl j->p jj^a^JI «^soai jjj ^L«jtil jj^. I?"...; ji wuuJli : Ls^jI jLx?-I 

yp ^bJLj A^PjJ^ ejj,./?-; j»Ju ^J-XJI ^LJ^II i^LlJl jl Jj^Jl ^^Sj ■ I^^J^J 



.(/.1982 tjji* : o-u]) JjjJl j-j jl^l : iw.UjJL.UI toj—tlj .1 (8) 



L^lJjk^-l jl i>JLj! Sj^JL, JbJL^JL, ySfl jLcj ^>- JUJI ^ dli; o_^j 
i_; 2 i-_~jJL Ijl>- Ij-iLj . i^JL^Jt oLpIjjJI j^ U^j ^jj^^JI *Lil J 

^yJl (iJl~j)/l ^J>j L$_Lx. 4_jL~jNl) oL~j}Ljlj l_3j j-laJL; jjJllJLo t£j-2Jl 

j»-^« >*j t^lijl ^JjJl J">\i^. , yi Jj5^j Ji . l$j t ^JsU < ^. (^-^1 dj-k>*i 
o~^ ^' ^^ L~^-l* jl ">W jl LJl^» U-ij^J c ^obwJl (^jill {»j^js» ^y UL>4 
^.jj^^r ,j-ej ^^ (_s* Cr^. ' ^J-^' oli*>LJl ^ -kjji* J^-I ^ L . 1*5 1 j 
^ i^U- iijk*A ,jji iyry. oUjNI jl . SjJuJl j _ y l5 tSJL^uJl oLNjJI 
i-jj-Ljl L^j^ai-j t^JjjJl d^l-b^l ^^ Ju fjy^i ijji - i-JUl L-LJl 
oljjJl oMj_L. iLJL^ ^Jl dJLi ^1 jji ^^jj _ IfJU l$_Jl^L tg_^> 

<LuLmJI (j^ Cili^c Ifius^j AlJjjJI Cilaibdl _ 2 

i*^w. Jji ^ LLJ o»a^ ^.JJ! jjw'UJI ^Ul dhijl aJUI Jj^tiJl 
LjjV £«->Jl a-*~^> ^lJLiw^-1 ju*jI .iJL>Jl «i^,LUl» j^-l ^U! *Nj-* JL. 

-,.Ja. " J A o.fr ».i Oj^lk^aj ,^jiJl f-ljJ^Jlj jjolaVo.ll ^ i^LJi o} JjiJl *Jal^J 
Jj t_j|^ksi»Nl Ol-b-} ^^Lp Uajl djjite *-f»l ^j^s; U-« c JjjJl ia^la^o ^^j 
(^* ^>* CT^ • ~^~**J JU-aI ^p j\ jv^-vaJj Jwai JP L.I ^jiJl ^yX^j 

^■l_Jl ^ jl jJ> n}^y\ Jlp <.a!JjjJI oU%JI ^ j^jLlJl jjo^^jl 
^LJl ^^ jl jv-friftUJ jLi j^j . ii^UJl (_$ji ^Ul ^o i^jfcl ^iS"^! -^jjl 



75 U o» 3ui\^i\ \S^*i\ 

: ^LdUJl a— L*Jl -tj~>j> ~<~Ls>- ^Js- ^^ ~5j}\ ^JLl«^JL) oLLki~-N!j ijp 
oU»LSJj oLL«J £3jjJl c->U%«Jl JbJb>^ ^o oil JU N . (JUJ! i-«L» JUpJ 

^ ^^a^oJj (1)1 d-JU ^ i LftjJLLo^oj JjJlM *tASj U.LaUj *\\a.Ai ^L?-jU- 

jjL^Jl JliLilj oli">bi-M!j oliU:Nlj o^UUJlj oMiL-Jl ^ iLJL- 
l^.'..o 5ji5 Oj^j t/»-^Jji ( j~> oL-J .xjIj olSa ,,<?U jlj-il <— «JLi>t» «-o w«5LxjIj 
oL-L-Jli . L$j jj_iCajj (V^J-il /^jloL^JI lj2l\j 4,laL..il ajLLj ipj-Ja^o 

JsLiJlj . a^jUJI i^LJL M aJL^IjJI ^L-UJU jLc; LLiS l^j N I oU 
JjjJl o^ dlli . L^ y* L-« iil^j UJbJ _^S"1 JjjJl Ji-b j_^_ ^L-JNl 

jjk UJ toL>Jl <u!p j_$jJaj LJ (i 3033 JlSLilj jv^jLjjk ( < .^. 'l . « . x > (^1 j^UNIj 

* f- " t- *> 

i^jjjj>- • j /•> » ' ■ ■ l' g 'I t oIjLJI ' j ■,-» " t L»**< jj t LJLoJI i <c~xj j-° jI 5wL>tX^>JI 
^jill ijiJlj A.la.LJl ^U^ L^J| . . rJl t L-«.Jl t JjJI^Jl tdL-~5L<Jl <.\Juji\ 

. Lfiji 5-xLUl c_aii 

. iJLJNl c-iLs^-axJI *jj-«J Jljw? ,_jip Lf^ (j ;: W:li i>^-i^i aJlj-IjJI ^La^JI 
tLgJliLp tL*JuJUJ iL^jL-J-j^ tL*jLpl_^i tL^JwJlji aJj^ J5G oLs ^yJLJLj 

Ob i jJl Ajjj^«J>- ij^JJ cJ\iy*AJ <aS\j>^j> .« ; ln"...i if ,V*>^ ' 4-,tfl>JI . . /^JJj 



^l Pjj>-jJLi t La ky * tA^^5L>^o » ; W:,.,i ^ . <jL^-*>L^j ^wiuJl oLkJ-^. 
dUi jLi ^ jl ^w»ljJl ^ . ^LUl ^L-Sll j^JliJl jl ^Lkj^Jl j_^-jJI 

^ t*>\_sol OJj>-j 0} t5i_p-j» U^j La IjiU JjjJl jl ^P . LiJ^* J_^i jl 
^1 L~>- oij>-j>i ^ i| t^^t^aJl jjk ^^S^xJl . <_s^-^l ^s- L*|Jt>-l iLLf ii^p 
j^SL . JjUxJIj jjU^lJI aSIjJI dJJS *^> IjJ-^Lo jl j» i^LJd Jb ^j ^j^- 
jl (^-4-^ £-*j^ o\ LJ (3^-jj • t j r a-*-^\ ,< g ■/? «-J J-*jI jl i_jjil Lilj-w>- <L*LDl 
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L.j . SjjL^jlJI JjjJl l y yi La J> o*>UUJl diiJ ^JU ilJjjJl oli*>UJl 
olSM*Jl *j_oixJ M} iU_^ ti-. L>Jlj *i^Jl ji <i*Ai-lj aIIjjJI J^U-^I 

Lgjj_LoJ>-> ^ylll iJjJ^JI j^Lajj jl i j^jXjl* aLoj>- S~*-*0 ^jlp 4_^.LUl /wo La _j 
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. aJj-UI ^oL^Jl dJJU J*>L>- ^y> «-lxtu*l jji iwoLJl .*-<»->■ 

tOjjJl Jj!>V>-Vl c~JL) _ J>-\ ^^—L— ^L-"^ Liij ^^Jixa (j^LJl jlS jJ ^1 
c$_rr j-b • ^j-f?^ ' iiLJl jjjJaJl ^ jJ^\ il-U»l ^jJLp L^i^jtJ Luj L^ 
jyo s-jj La-jj Uij tS A?- 1 j a-^J_4P 5_ r — 1 i_r"L*J t^Lp L^-L*- JUJl AaI ,. ; .l?.'j 
iXi>Jl diki iL^U sT^ i^JUJl i.«LJl (i*>U-l CJ153 t^iUo-^l c~J>Jl 

JS^o jl jy. Mjj o_b~lj ajji ^^..LwJl JUJI jliGj ^4iJb^J| iJLJ-j^Jl 

j^ *yjj iJU-b Jj!>U4 ( _ f U i^JUJl a^L-JI Ojkl^j i JjjJl ^ j^iSDl ^ 

4^^2j jl J^J^^JI ^p j^ij ,wi>jj| jjb ^^J dili jl jJi- . illjjJl (jMi^Vl 

jl . <oL-» c^li Jji (j-xL^ol ^j-Lp LJaJwo j^JLjJl Jlj La . <^o ji c~ij (_gl ,J 
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77 \A*& X^^nS cX*$*& 

l <Zj\ a i ./? \\ tjL>tiJl c<Jj-~Jl Cj^>LoL«j *\j>- j-?*^~i i^Ui (j-o ^^^ ^ 

ilgjl . JbJl J_p- jl-xLJl iwAh>i» ^» UUI JlkJj LUij ii->- I^>*jj lj^-j 1^ 

^J\ lS Jsju L»j t>j-i>- 'i;^" *JL*Jl Aty^ <_yLfr 4-~>ta V">*^ ijJL^JJ o^jUJI 

H^- u- 4 tjj^ >* ^J H^r i>* cs^ 1 - 3 >* ^ 0^ id 1 -^ 1 ^J-^ J^J (j^ij^" 

t J-al^l C-ijJl ^ L*^J«^ (_,» (jv9jVl *_J>j5 ^yJlP iJLJ^I oliM*Jl IaJ-wu 

jj <j^~j A-t iJjjJl c->L-Joj-o ^yip Uuo _yjJ a5 . Lg-x-« J^iIjcJI i^LUl j _ y Lp 

SjI A^J N LgJl . 4-pL~Jl 4_!jjJl 4_kL^ (JJlx-o iJijJL>- jl ^LJjA.i-1 CjULsoI 
C^-5j-!l ^j «-«-J j«J . (JjjJI «^»Jo>t^J "U-jAj j\ <U^9LLo <uJip <U^(L^»i iU*»«J>i 
0j \Zi iwflj wsOjj ,< .li'.i J^ju^> 1X& UJ-Ul >t-aJ^>t^>J JjJ-J jl ^~9U* (_^1 j^/>L>tJI 
oilp OjIa^lj i-JjjxJl O-j^Jsl olpij . ( _<JLjJ| ^jl^^]\ ^S- 'U^oL^Jl oL>Jl 

^j-ijJlj (_;ib>Jl jjill _j» _y~«L-JI jUoiSMIj ^j'J/I :SjL— Jl Xkj U-i tj^Jl . r- . j (9) 

. (*»1995 C_^ojjj <«-aL>- (^jiJa^ 1 yjjjj) 



*^j^ j ^j^ ^"'-? »\\ s»>i 78 

iL-L- oLpUj>- Jl j^JLi. w»jS/l S^£Jl jlSL- j^S" ^Slj J* LjLJ.3, 
<uL>t» ilJLSw Ji5 ojIj} ^p ^^aJ jL a^«j^>«^ aJLsaa^o i^o-Jil ^j— >l oli 

L*^. 1 ^ ^J i^ljJl l^jj-i ^xr^ J J J-i^~" ^Lr- ^J J U~-*JJ 
Jl Ljj>- oij^-j^o il^L*Jl ^^1 jl oIpL>^>J1 dlLi j^j . i^UJl Lj-«JJj 
jll»)ll ^ Lo ^ ^Ij^-L; Jj^jJ-« ^15 jU tjbp i!U- J J=^j Jj tt_J^- 
i^Jii^o 4-L>Ja_> ^ $ ,/ g .ic; £• Ij-^jo jl Ijiljl ISI il^Jli*^ lj*y ,^jL*^JI 
_^i iUx^wJl JjjJ! £+ss^J ^^J\ J^ 1 ^ • v^V J 5 >M r-V^y. 
iwJljdl J U5 Lo iJ^ ^j> L-UI j! I^JLj Ij— J »-$£j twJU>-Vl iL»L** 

KJ^jjjjjNl Oj-J^-I viLii . 4_*_>LJlj aJla^^JI 4_^L~J| oIpU^>JJ iS » J ^i\ 

jl l_pj^- -*i3 . iiL- jj^S J a!>-jUJI aJL^^I ^f\j^y «.bJi J, t «JaJL 
oliUiJlj oljUsu»Jlj oljUJl t-»^*-i ^j .»^u }L^U LjLv Ijl>- 1j^w^_ 
• U»* ^Jl ^ jr* r^^J « Jj>^l» dJbJj! v J*> ^3 d\Sj . ^>VI 

L-Ulj tj.il A_Jj-« J-* L-lil ^ j a . /? j-> A-fJO> J-aLxjJl (Jj->- JLaj L> ^Jj 

j\ ^Uij-)fl jl il;L-J)/l ajL/JI fjj ollL-p j! ^J> . dJLJi ju<j ^j^jc^^. 

JjjJl ^ ^UJI Jj-Ul ^^^Jl s^sla ^-y Jl ^JUi ^Sl . ^1 ^ L^ 
iU^Jl ^ dJLL" . W.jVl 5^5Gl J^jsj o^^l ^y^ U^JI SiLJl oli 

i^jui jsi^ji jy±si\ juj^i ji vu ji ulp jl jii^i . fJ ji i^l^j ^ji 

. iJjjJl SiLw- lO^ Jp ^jU (_y«JjP Jj^ f-*^ 1 *-U-» oJL1>ij 



79 5^ ,j» A^\^i\ o\i^»» 

-uJjjJl a~-L~JI «a~-L-»» *ifl tiwjt* a^LJ ?-ljJ ^y> c,^^ IJla a—LUI ^Ujj 

* * * ,. 

n-^i\j\j ■, (^■^■>- T _r° /V* *— LU1 jf>w»-j a_JL^jIjj A_JL«3 jij LwuL^/l C-~~-J 

jl (jLiJl ^1 Oj^ojjI t— ilJ ^" .«■! a^o .., g 5 1 5" jl .., g ■» g ~ a-^sAj ijy>- 4.a.l. T . > t-oJI 

tdJUi ^. (J^aJI ,_^Lp 'aJI ^cJlsUJI ^jlp LgJU ^-J a-^L^JI ^ *}L£Jl» 

t » _ j * 

. ^^.L-Jl JglJLdl aI^J^JI SbVl J^-^j (jjlaull j! i—>j^l<Jl jlj>Jlj . ^^ L-l 

jlj>JI i)jJoj . a^JLxJLJ cJjjLJI ^Xjt<ob <L«L»« aj! ^j^>-j j-*-*~! jIj^ji Oj-Lj 

. aJj3 C->U>*>U- Aj! ij>-J J~>t^«j <_j)jjJl 
^S (l^jjji'* j-ft La ^jip frj ./gil W ; l ",i L*2jI ^y— LsjJbjJl jljj>Jl CJ-4J 

jjJjSL iib^a Jji jiLa^oj e-^lSj L^J iJjL^j AJl«.a5T <_£l : aIjjjJI i^L^Jl 

j^jjjxj ^XJl (jjJL»J! x_w»^tj JjjCUJoj 1 g ... tfi A ; .,(?2ll jLL) (V-4J-9 jl /f~*^-o 

j*-^ (^ 'M c^J ' jti/"' aU-L- ^L^> ^Jlc- p-4±j\J>^j p^»j^_& jj=- j~*^\ 
JAjc}\ iSyr->, . *\fi\ J^L: ±*j jJiJl cjL^?-jJ «i»U; jl JLiJl ^1 J-^jJl 
tAJ^Jl o^UMl t vUl oULJl coLLkiJl j~* :ij^S «j^L ^jJlII 

t !>l*Jl jJlPj l^- - '^>J>^s<aJl CjIj^Jj-JI cCjIjI^aJI t CjUxjj^/liII t Cj*>LoI^»JI 
/»Jjj . . ?tJlj t 5j-iL^ -*P aJL Jsjj a j-iL^a <. KjaJila ASvJLjj aJL^»I j^> a j j ■/? i 



: ,j~Jj-! LjLjiJI) <*~*y>j 5JjJj>- <L«-1» 't5^>"' cjHMaj i-»U«JI ^» i_J , yi«Jl to_j-t^jl . ^ (10) 

.206 t < r 1991 ^jtJjJ 



t V-LJI S^Jl ^UVl lUlill cil>Sll ^1^ t^JjjJt oLiiuJl t^Jjjdl 

^yU ^jJao" LUaS J_^ p-^j U ^ J^I^Jl J^- ^ Lg-J} *Ijha^I a^-LJI 
. SjjJ! ols%Jl jj>^» JSLL, l>Lidl dlb jl . iJ^iJL* ^^ j\ aUxaI 

iUS^Lkf LUafl ^Jfc 4^' «aU5UJI tf^LIi _ 4 

LUaj ^ ^^kJ iJLJVl oli%J!j iJLJ^I SJUAJl jl oij^Jl y> 
& Si I jls jl jj^Uj M ^1 ilLiJlj ^Ij^sJl i^jJIj ^l JsL^5" i Li^ 
Jj^/jjLS" vuJJl ilJb-Sfl jl ^>w5 . ^4^ ii^UJl ^ ^LJI oU*lU J*>U- 
olU^^Ml jLi j^ jl jS* (.aJ^J] \Ajii 4j| T-^^JaJ jl *Jax~J V oUUloiJIj 

^ La^j oUU^Ij JjNjJU oUw^l J> Jlii-^l JLxJM jl 5_Jl J^l 

. LLaiJl oJla Jl. ^Jo' jl LgJ lj-^>^ j! ^LU ^^SUj ^Jl v^-JaJl ^jlj53l 
^i J^p^^vaj ^j^- toli!>UJl j* l^J, ^ Ijii-Ju jl L« *.jJlJi\ jli ^LJLj 
«WaU ^"jL*Jl jjU ^ju^-I) JuJlj j^Vl SjJb ^ ^^b i^ cJ^ll 

Sy j^J ol>J N _ jJLJI ^ jiU- ^l~J)/l JaLiJl jl Ujj . (<ub ^yUJl JU 

J^i ^ Ul p^LJl ^yU Jj^Vl j-*_p- ?y>->_ . (iM^Vlj iiJj ii^U b Uoj! 
jl *Lj>l Ijjl5 _p U5 ^y*-^l (j-xl-Jl />-« ""j'j^ '"jy^^. ^j^> j' ^k—j N bib 
U^j^j ^1 ii^JaJL \^w J^LoJl) oL^> jl JUjcu^^U ojaU- cjL?-U- jl oljil 
j^J jl i_^>^_ ^Ul jl Jj^j 4_^,L-S/I iJ"^Vl t^ilrJl Ji>-U • U jJb^" jl 
(^4JH>^ f'^r^^l (w^r-l^il j^ jl <_5^*j viUi . iJLJj oULS' ^^j ./>y_ ^jlUU^ 



81 <jA j^\ <^\^i\ oVv**A\ 

olT^Jlj CjIjI^aJIj oL-Lw^Jl C^j L^_J ijy^j jd\ ^-JjjJaJl jl 

oU^aJ ia^j Js- pX>Jl J> LS^I 4J_p^L* oIjLipI LaJ Jj5j USUjIj 

dj-b.JL iiMp ^ji jl j^j^ J>^ Ji ^. j^iix^Jl L^LJl ^ jJSj 
J>\ 5iU LiJJi (Jijjj • L£^ (*-*:>>*- j J-aU^" 0>SC Ml OjJLJI ^ • <u~aJ 
0j>LJL ii*>U ^i ^^-^i ^M ^ ^1 oljljill ^^U j_^J| ^^i 
j>-*j ^1 oL*L~Jl Ja^^ j\ JijAj US t aJ j2ju> Ijj^oj LaJU^ ol <L>-jUJl 

. [ajJjCj jl ^>-jUJl i^LwJl J ^iaUJJ 

j^ J-*-^ 1 j-* Si ^ ^JL*J ^lj J^-l ^y j^j UU^ Jw*jJI j^5L 
j^U-Jl J**JI OjZj SSJS . JU«JI <w>jJL iL^I JU jJil ^^i : juj 
i*\iiJSl\ t 5^Sll il^i! .Ijl.^LJl j|^>J| *|j| bj^jj^j :UU!l ^1 

j^-Vv 4>-^ *'J! U^Ln^ j-* 'W^ '^ - saJUl jl LS >*1\ Jj»I k^UjJI 
iiji^J ilJjjJl ^;L*-JI jl ^j^u jib . L^UJl Ljpb ij_b- r-jli- ^i^^-j^ 
£*^~JJ ii^Sfl sL>Jli . Ui-Ul aJ^JI l^JKJi ^ ^j jl ji\ jLjMI 

jl OjJLJl ^ . j^Jlj ^Lk^^l ^ ^1 jJlL H. j^^y ^a j^ J\x LjV 
j>-jUj ^ «■ U^j^i- ^i>-l jl _lL ^ ^i^p-^Jl dkJjl t ^.Jl^JI ^Ul 
Js- Jj^Jl SjjXi tSj^US' t jjio cjIJJL L^3jiL>J . LJ_p A^ujJ ^-jIxJI 
V^JL L^jS\ <L~s~ ^j Lj^ ^ ji-Jd! Jl^w, Ju> i~^Vl oU^Jl 
pAjL . j-^Sllj ^-.jSII ^-^b iJjjJl j^5J .LU^ ^Ul ( Ji« ^L^. .LJI 



A^i^Vj^j ic^^ T" ****">■ A " ^J-^ 4 



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^Ul y Ijl>- iLli iii . *-f*L>- y ^"Vl <^*J1 (j~^j (^^' (^ *-^r~ >* 
. OIjUUI aj^15I (»^UI J5l— j J> VrjL^Jl jU-S/L> iJjLL. ^LU«Jl jlo-SlI 

6- ■* C- * 9> 

^~^j . j~*£S\ jL>- 131 ., ^...ail ^p IjLi"! Cjv-^jJlj ^p IjLi^l jj-Xjjj (.r"^^ 
. UIjJL ^ IjU-l S:>U Lfci Jb>J Ui i^^-S/l JbM^Jl l^ij r-jUJl c^i y 1 —' 

•^oLa* ^^Ip aIJjJlSI C->li*>l*JJ ^yj>yil\ *-J>j]\ ^jia^i <-{SJ>-\ «J^*J 

V aIJj-UI (iMi-Vl jl l5 ^«j Jiiij . 1i3.sa.-Jlj i3jl~JJ iiJbk^ ^L*-* U^j> 
Jil Jj^l jL^Jl 0^ sjlpUSj . U^l Ui-|jdl J^VL l*kU- j_p~ 

t^L^-jUJl i^-L^Jl ^^Jlp (vi^>Jl jlJu<4 4_JLo^ ^ s^UjlpI ^^_ Lij^-j 
cjLJLxjsJI /y> Laj— pj 1 lg_alJL»xi~*1 j\ 4j>Jl^w<JI ojajLj Ju-L^jJl t <u^L«jJ_ijJl 
^^Ip i ( _J^-IjJI «^j^<Jl Jio <di« t^JjjJl «^>jj>wJ1 ^jij . aIJjjJI L-xL-JI 

jjJLi ^ i_JUl bj$jA\ J> \j^j~J>j iljJLJl «JljJi _^£f J^J . o>^Jl 



83 3ui^\ A^\^i\ oVi^*i\ 

V-UjLaJl oL-U-Jl ^ tfji-] <Jj> g\j£ a+5 .^j-i-ll dyUi\ t^Vl 

. LJ jS\j <J^J>\ OjSJ Jj-UI jy\2i\ ^J <J\j . U^J\ 

^ U^J> £* cS^UJlj fc,lkJ| jl^iVl j- t^LJUJl ^j»ILJ\ ^a IL^r o\ 

01 L^SU-, ^JjjJl oUsLUl jl ^UJl ^ . ^.^ L. ^ jjl.Uiij <L,UJl 
^-j v-LJl oli^UJl 01 jijJl j^ . ioU N 0j5J j! I^SUj US' iJlp 0_^J 

t JU- aJ ^ lf*-^r ^ jj jl iL»ULJ jLiLSU ^LaJ ^y^vJ . .JlJUkVl 
qUJIj sU*Jl Jj^ J^jl ^1 pjk^LijI ^ <J6\s- <ul : i^j>\j ijy^, aJLp 

Jj J^\ ^L^JI ^ ^y J\ J ^^ ^UJI o>=dl 01 . (11) tJ^! 

iJlSLiVl ^ ^i US 4;Slp c J i-O ^ i^LJl oli*>U)l 01 j-p 

jl$o\ll Ol OjJJcju O^SL-^531 ^JjjJI *-,j^JI _£»L» .ijL~> IjoJ l$J 01 

SU>Jl ^^, ^ U^J- jl ^Ji-laJl o-l — !l ^ l$JU^ ^a L«_p Jij ^ Sjj-*aj 



.((■1961 i^-Jjj jj^ : ijjj 3a;_^jU) J_^ ^j_>>- w-y" '^S/l t,jLjL5U .j (11) 



, k'." ^1 a5^LJ| ^bcjl ^y> ip_j_*j>^ SLpI^j Jj^i jji JjJsMl (_$-UJl 

Ji*l!l j| . i^LUl ^)l i^wjJL <u~iJ _y VI A-^ ■ ^r°_f s> ^j iS'^^-iwoJl jv^JL^Jl 
^p dL-aU tjlip^ jji ai^jL>^ ^jIp ,_^l>- J^-^j ^/-l t^JJl >* lSjW*-*-^ 
i~JL Uw?lj Oj^j ol uJ<-~! l£~^ i Jj^I JsLijU ^UJl Jutlll 4^»jfc! tjLS^I 

iilijj Xjl A->. ij jj^Uj \j!j«j ,jij^"' <*-° ^^r*"'j " — ^W" j' /"-* t j'j~>Ji ,*-" 
tlH ir^*" ^ 2J ji <_£jW*"° j-"^ - 4-*Jj*jI (jLL^J . /^J^oj^-a^i _^p LjjSo jl jtalxJ 

. Ijlp- oJu«Jlj 4x!b>t*Jl cjUU&JIj oljLixJl 



4JL0J <U-^l« I I J_i-L>*j 4— j^jjU 4_™_~oj_s i^j-L>«J] ( Jj_UI *_«Ji^_»JI 0\ 

j\ 4i*>liil jjjiJl J*>U- lJu\ Jl a~JUJI a~-L~JI y aJ\JcZ>j}\ lyteJil isLJjNl 

oLjj L^Jl ; iiju 4_u>tjjLj 4_wmuL_wJI oL~~»j_»JI jj-£o . <lwj>L«-!I *-*hj VI 

-J J^JaJl t-~py L^jwsj l5j-=tj <• Vj-J <^-^J jl o^^SIaJI culJ L> . Ul_b^ 

^ojjjVI j^ ISj o^iJl oJl5 .^Ui^jJl Jj-Ul a^-^-* Sji^i ^l i-^jJL 

•^JjiJl ^S Ls^i>lj CjL (_$JJl iJa^-jjiil iwT^^Jl Ajjjislj^o^fl JaUa^Jl ( _ 5 Ip 
-JUJl cJl«_^ ^y^- OjJLlJl jl S^LaJl o±J U *J . j-1p j^liilj j^Lp ^jLJ! 
t -^jJl -wo jLi cjli ij^i c~ob t*~jy oij ^ oLU J-ii ^LjUj • »j— 'Ij 

o^Sli oli ^j>-Ul iL_-L^Jl oLvJ-j^Jl J^^j • ">LiUv^ c-JjJl <jA*-J L^Ij^ 



85 <ul^\ <iA^i\ o\V&*\\ 

• S^^J' ^jj^h jl^iVl iLJ^, ~<~>\y> O^jJl £° jj^ c^j-^l *_«j^JI 

<. 43jyw 4j^ _>^>J M j~JcJl ^ jJiJ Lfs^yJ aSjXJ jl UaJ t ^SU-Jl ^ jji^Jj 

^Ul dkijl jl JyL . (12) ( JUJI i^LJ cjiki^. ^^ ^ l^-j^j ^j^Jl 
j\ Oliu-j Jj«j iJb- ^2^->i-uJ <LLli ^iSl c~~J iJlill ^LaJVI <L>lf^9 . j j .l»-L „ 

^-^oJJ ^UJl <^?~JI j^~^J JLL^*>\J ^J^l A-tfJ^I AjlgJ ^ aJIJU^ JUj 

j^V*^ 1 c^t cM dr* ^ ^ Jr^ 1 c5y ^ c^J^ 1 (Ji ^y ^^ lS^ 
jl ja ^JH\ JL^~Nl jl .jjjjUl ^^Jl ^yjii* ^^ t j^^^Jl jLa^Ij 

tij^i tij-^r (Jj' 5 J_>>*j t^l Jj-^*>- 6y>- iajlj cjUjJ aj! <3*>Ua| ^Jl ?-jLJ 
jl JjiJ ^1 ^JxjjLJl ii^i^Jl ^5Juj jl LJLp k _^»o t iijjJl oL^ <jL^j Jlp 
il^i^.1 ^jIp oLj^JI ^ ^^^l ^ <.A>^jj nj\ Jl*. c-.b JjjJl *-*^* 
oLoxj- Lglil ^ jj ^1 oLjl^cJI dJLL" ci^UI i^jS/l jl #*iJI jj^iJl 

d i^>L k iiSUaj 4-a^taia j.^^"...« ^T...l fillj «<->■ " (ji — 7 

j-* ^^J 4-^UJl Jj^Vl j^ ojlj^ij il)jjj| jj^u-Vi ^w«J i >=j 

J^LLJl ^ iih^Jl ^IjjSlI jl o^^l t> ^ <ujjii . ^JbJ! ^L_JJ 



.702-651 i (j.1985 t.jJc~,j : jjlJj iL^^^ «. jjJjL) Sj-^Uw 



l\i:{\y> kiicJ^jo ll_^L- ^jboj tji^l [ _^~& l ^*^° -^ (_jJi 'Wi> ^LwjNl 

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j^fili^j i-* LUI oLkLU ^jJLc- Ljj-fj-* a-Pj-I-JI t3^U»*yi ^.-va-o 

ji (jjia^ . illjjJl <3">U-SJl j-*>=r J^-^ c-^^ 1 ,y J^U-I jl : i-rjUJl 

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87 ^^\ "^U^i\ o\i^*i\ 

i^UJl L«-i *^>tij jl di!i jLi j^i : iLijLJl LjL>-^JjjJli| ^bca J*>U>- ^» 

p p pp. 

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^» U^j jUajlj JIJlLj ^-1 ^ Ij-^JH 0^ O^ 1 ^ cr 1 ^' ^J-* (v-iij^ 



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f-LaJl OjjtJalw^j Mj j^^axJI , g ,,h kj ^Jl jj^«-lj>o <r"tUl 0\ tw>IjJI jj 

cjU*>UJI Jj_£j : j^y>>i\ ^ pf." J-S Lg_J Jj-*Jl 5JL^ ^J jLsojNlj 
b\ jJa-^jl JU . jLJNl -»j^>-j-5 ^r*cr^ s JJj-^ 't^-^' «^JUJu t4_JL~JNl 
i!ji ^ ^^Jl cA^i ^' '"^ i_y*c^' <>* ^b (<<Ut t-^i cr-Lr" jl_^-» jLJ^I 
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jl ^^ . L<2jI ^^L^ij a^jcj^Is JjjJl ^i oli}L*Jl jl iiJL)i ,_^-*j • oiL— olS 
jl» <_$JJl ^JuJl ^l 4*^ ^L*-L— • c— J iJLJMl ojU*>UJl! i^LJl ( _ r ~- > bll 
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jvjfc M tlj^J j»_jJl _^p tiiiu^jl iijJiJl jl (Polis ( _ rr JjJl) iJJuJl 5Jj^ ^ 



.^Lp ^-.UJlj ^HJI Q-lvaiil U^ '^y^l ^UJI i J^ >il (56) 

.216 4~_,UIS^ tij^iJ^S' (57) 

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.^li!l J^iJl t JjSll 



143 *,<;,...•!&» 4^j\i^\ a^v 

iJUjJl (Polis ^^JjJl) aJjuJI 5Jjj ^ isLi^l. tiih^Jl a~-L~JI oLJyJl 
_ SXjcwJIj <&LjJI sL>Jl «-Ijj Lx— ^LJl Lfpju! ^Jl t aLjl>J| aJjjJIj a^jAaJI 

. oLsJI cLUj <U»Lo *jP AjUI><^«JI j»^aIa<JIj i-jljj./^ll -jjo 5^5 Jb>- jj Lo^ LoL»j 

r-Lj L$J^ . y>-l s-^yJ. <_gl jl jLJNl i*jJaj aJLJ^I oli*>UJl iJj>^ N 
aLIS Lg_U_>«_> L>_* , .^.».:..^ j j-lJl fl^-l <y L^Jl . ^^^jjLJj ^LiS i _ s *^> 
^-Ul jl L->j . o^J> ^l jlC yj ^^lj (^^Jl j>e _^*^lj jUtJj*^ 
jl OjJuji ^l <LjL£J| J_p- oJUJl?- f-ljL jlJ^/lj | ^JU-LJ _ 7 ~Ju ^^JLp jjjili 
aS^xJL»JIj <uUJl (t-^Jii-^- j j *>.,,? .o IjJ-^; Jl wajl jj-».a".<^ -i g''^» c Ljj IjJLjm 

jl I --^JLsJal jl j»_£jl_g_a|j *_A*.LI Ij-S'^J jl ,< S'-^-o-J • I-*- Jj-l-^»-w^ ^_ B-^J 

. r-ljjJI ■t~-«^ lj^*i Jl b y^' -'- i ■ * fr ' - k j Ijjj^j jlj tj»_^-ljjl I jS lia^i 

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\y*- r *p\ jl tjj^iJl ^ iJ_c- j^ tlj^-J L« t*>Lta t j^jjjjVli ' i g ;j I « 
Jjj . ^j-^-w^wftJI ( **?*>L>dlj SL^jJI (jjjj oljLwoJIj <U~jL»JI Aj y>Jl <U^S j j » ■/•»; 

j^ajJl (Jl -k^Jl _ r A*Jl y JliJ^I aJLjJ L^iJu ^^^l J^Jl dJJi JiLs 
{J ~S jJU- ( _ 5 Lp ^jjli ^Ul Jiaj j-^j^l ilJllal t _ ? Loj C^UL-wJl j~*b . i^oJu>Jl 
( jj» 4_Ljj9 ( L**>L~oj Aj t cjIjI_s^>oIj cjliLliJl ^_» Lis>_p>»_Lo L^jjo Ja_ii 
jl 5JbJL>JI jUoVl ^ ^JLi *jl L^j .i-iujLJI oL">LL;Nlj o^j^JI 

Aj J^JI jJljCj ^yLj^l rtJjUl jL~« jli tioJ-lSJl jLObU S-bJL>Jl oLi_^ll 
'Ulc- Oj£s^> L»-J J-^lJI J^j^L^j . A^oJ-xJl iijjL i^-^-lJl iijJl -wo jJLS (_$L) 

^p iil^o i^. i_AJl J^i f-U^jl y aJ Ijjl5 Ui . a^m- t— ill J0»j j-iJl Jl_p-I 
JL>-1 ^ \j~S b^c- jl aaj&u_ ai« ^^ t_Jb>- ^ j-°^l (jJ^ • c_^l (%-fr^U^jl 



. ^ijUl 5^ t ijjiJ^ (59) 



<kjj\^j (jVi-^ ^n*-s n\\ \±J^ 144 

.-gJijIJs jl ,»_£ijlx_A jl p_gJ|jJLl*_o jl 4i*>LJ jLSoIj LjL^-j L^v^ ia-o^> 

I^U-j L_^L> j»_g_;lj_^>J jl . j-*jJl j-^j ^j-Jl ^ j-M 1 lAhs 
oli">UJl ^jjjs jL* jLo 4 ilijjJl oli*>UJl ^^J . ^^ U-S" _ *>Li^^.j 
^ JULU .\j~icj. \*jj>y» ^JLJL>j W^J^" '^^ '^i 't5>-^l i^LJ^I 

^.jLIScJ v^i ^^y jl J^-°j *— *'j-* ^^-* (J--J ol IJla l5 ^*j N . aJjuuJI 

tiaill t^iLdl t jjUJl tijfcl^53lj i^j>J|j jL>Jl t L^>Jlj iiyc«Jl tf-UJlj 

V <uU dlJi5j .JLJLJ^I ^lit>UJlj oUpLlJI p%" t JJJS j! o*Jl 1JL» Jl 
N tj^Uil jS- tMU-jj cLJ t t _ r —LJl L^^j ^1 oU^i^dl aLJLo jl ^jju 
^^a 1*5 t iL yo "Ui^j ol^xi ilJj^l Jp LJu-p ^-;^j oJl«L<3 ic*-^ jl ,* .W-...T 
Jjli ( _ r ^L r -- i_Jli (^1 jl _^p . Jli<Jl J^— Jp ^W.^jJl jj^uJl LjjjI Jl>- 

JUJl jp (jr^b J' 'J* jr^ 2 ^^- IjJj^i 01 p-G^^Uj j-M <J^ ^^ : j-~^-U 
jl f^S^j ^J-^ailj <udl>*_« oL>- 1jjj_v£Ij jl Jjj ; W:..m S <ui j^JLju (_$JJl 
oLldTj Ijlivil Ij^JLj jl jjj«-JaX^u 5 i^jji (Jj±-\ Ij-V^J o-bJL?- U-i Ijl^ 

/jjo Jil jl ^51 jUA; I IjJjUtJ jl j»^5sajj i «_gj|^>- vo lj^«<lij jl jj«.U-...^ 

J-JaJl £^>y> cjL-Li^l jl cjIj^JJI jl cjl-baj>tiJl dJiJ Ijj»..^j jl t^-l^jJl 



145 a •,<■■,, „^\ a^\i^\ A^\ 

. oLuJl JjljJaJl ^ j~S J-Uj Iglc- j^*^>\j s-i-* f-f^^l ^'j^i 
Ot—JaJl Ij^ij SjXp- /_>-W> <.j\j2~\ (_^Ll!I d\ t jl./?tj-l> t Jj-aJI /^-*-d 

l^^l ^LpU^p-I CjLJ^J ijl jl JaJajiJl jl ioJajNl jl jJljiJl jl oL~lj-<JI 

t JU-^Ij *L~jJJ ojlijlj ic-JL^Jlj iuJUJl iSCLJl dibi . JL lp j^J ^iaij 
iLjJ» <d~J— j^ ^^jh^w 1 1 j^- iijjjt^Jl i^^Jl U^jLU; «_« oj>- Jl Lj>- 

jj-lj <.^a2SsJ\j jjJa^j] j»Jb jL^iJ ^cjjLjj SjJJiJLoJl 4-~»L_~JI JljjJl -^o 

i^>-j J~>o~<JI ^» jl* IjSC&j .JUL t ( j^ScJJ JaS JjUJI ^_pj ioU-LLJL 

4jL~JaJl oJlS jJj tjLJ^/l lIjJL-» ^ j_ r Jj 4_LoL5CJl iiiJLj *Ow> ( _ r »-Lc- JJ:> 

tdJUi jl -bJl IJla J\ LjJIS ^ t Ji^l Jlp ip-LJl 8 JL» ^ C <JL iJLJ>l 

. *>Us ^l^J ^j ^lo" j^f iLli jlSoL J^jJ *^jip j_^Jl*j jJLJI jV 

. aJjjJI olit>L«Jl *L»1j.i J^ ^L^jJIj ^L«jfcl oli cjUpL^j iUbJl oJd 

Jj i?-UJl jji oLc«j^<Jl ^ oIS*>Ip ^>>-j j^SU-JI ^ jl t*>lLo t^" 

Jis- ULi^ US' ^UJl iJjjJl _ ijZj ^& jIjC ^yJl oUJlj^Jl j! _ s^So 

. ^^Ljl J i^jLLa f-Usjl i<J OilS" . iwiUl i«JjVl jl £*>lSJl jj^JiJI ilJOil 

respublica i^^^^^jl Ljj^^j^JI) 4_^_^J| iJa^j^l LjjjI ^jJaU-oli 
^^-JjLoJL* U_»J^J jl^-T o^LLo iJLwAj . aJulAM jl^I oJLS (Christiana 
.jU*i-.Nl JJ L. Li;>lj jlk/^Nl JJ L. IS^^I J, l±J^\ olwJL 

^"jx^j Ji . 4?.../? II AjjjJalj^o^/l ijlju>- ^Js LsUi>j L«j|j ^LLj Jc^J U5 

Li lil _ f\Jc^^S w>LJl jj^ill j^ ^S^ 1 r* <^j*- ^-JL5l ,_^jjJl ^j>^JI 
j» IjjJ^- <uik>^ i^^ jU^pI Jl a^jNI 5^,5^1 J_p- Ju^^L^JI sL>Jl ojiL 



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_ 4liu^Jl iwM-L«Jl oLL£Jl Lf*^o 7t~vaJ modus operandi J^>j<JI Ja^J *--^ 
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■dlxi (U-«J OjJli I J-*J • ioLu ^L»lj <L)Ljl ^ AjjJl^o ^oL^oj ^ISwi li-U 

oUUi 4-Lkj>- ^ l-bJi=r L^i Jj-*j ol ^^l^ Ij^li jj5L-» illjjJl oli^UJl 
ilSjjJl oli*>l*Jl (ULjj a_JIj_<J LjiaJl ^tjjLd! ^ L^JUj j^*j °^r^ f-U-il 

Oj j -j /wJJI _ JaJb o »Jw? 4~?xj _ /oJiwoJl jr'SJ'J t JL>JI 4j»..b' t *lj_ul jJ^ 
j—jsxJI /—j SjjkJ IXJLS IJ^Jfcj . ijj -AJl j*S- (*-Qj\j Ja-> Uj-Xj-cj (V*- Oj i g" '"^J 

o^ivJLa (j^kj <_$JjJ L-L«jJ! .kits' jl ^y^jjji- j\ j^yLiLS^Lo ^J j-=~^'j 
diii *-*j . 1 ,/>A l y>*j \jj ,/? p ^j Jj Jaii *j*j./ts- ^ ^~J <CjjjJl oli">L«Jl 
J_^ J-^aiJl J^iJl ii"^-.l Jai OyJh^j V olJJL ^-..-Jl UJUp ^kpl jU 

Lkl^ t ,-jj xJc^^> <wsL>Jl ijjJiJl (^JLoj'iL^^i f»-j-i-4j ,<*j (f^L^JI M.ai>«.i»jl 

p-L-il jlj^JU-L; iil-Jfc . iJliJl -j^ajLJI -^j^^jLJI cljJaJj (_$jj j^> tlj^-Ua^ol 
^ AJtM oli^Lj^o j-^-Jl ON tiDS . iJLJ^fl CjLs^jJI VfP LgJ^i ij£-*-i ~*~r>\-J>\ 



147 4^,,,^A\ ^Ai-W A**\ 

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-*i «_^l oL-ljjJl sJjk i^L^I oJl* ^ aIJjjJI oli*>UL k^a>c^S\ Syoj^Jl 
oLL!j_*Jl ^o aJ ULSLo Jj^j jL IjjJl^>- J-j-li^^Jl ^i I j- * ^Jlc- j-JLAj 

Llx5L«j (^>-jJjl<) 4_w«j_aJ i^-o-Lc- L-jJuo LJjjJl oL-ljjJl c^~wJ 

^j^JI L-U^j -X~Sj jji LkjJLdJl oUjiaJl ^is ja IgJ SJoJb>Jl oliLl^Nl 

i j^ww^LojJLjJI < j~- L~J| i_jL1$JI» jl 5^ OjIj (VjLo Ji?-N . ojL~j- aj! 
^Ui>-Ml ,_y«lp y JS" ^ ii;Jj>Jl olj^kJl i>^ ^3jL>J ^ J i^LLviiJl 

o-LUl ^ iJLj)M ^^1 j«-fi iLd» «^« jb_b»- ^ fjUaij jl jj^itUl 
OjJJJI <loUj>I I^S"^. tiLLJl JL^I j> <ul*J Ja^ U ULo. 1 5lJ_jjJl 
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,J\ f-ijJ. iiU>>/ ti^U_Jlj .i^Jl dUS J5 ^ oali^L. cLpL-j iLLI 
ipj-Ul oli*>Ul jp Lus^w jl IJla j^u ^ . Hj^J] y* <1jjjjJ)\ LJj j^> 

^vjJ^j jl . 6jjJa^)j <C5waLoi L^Jl t^j^^aJl jj* i j r £*S\ ioJ^>U>-j SjJl>^« 

. <colj>ij v—jjL^oJI v U?- 
^jUjJaJj ^^LJl jL5ol ^1 oi_j> aISL^I^J! ijjLl<Jl SiLo^l v^_w^J 



122 <, JjJl ^>«J| ^1^1 oji ^-U5I (61) 



oli > >L*Jl Ajj J SJl<L*_«Jlj ejjla^aJl tt_*Ll<JIj (w—JL-Vl i jL^-JL^I -y> LljSLa-j 

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JjLsxj (jJI oLJaJjl (_£Jb»cJ «_« JjJI j\ fj-JI i 'J*-?*-' iS^^ **- = Hj-' <4jL~*-«-jI 

. LLS' l$JLk*J SJjJj>J| CJj^b'.il »JaI^J Lo IjiU i JLS"UL Ijj^J «^r6-^ L*^' 

. i^jJLaJl 

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Ajjl_pJl ii^^sJl t^^L^Jl Jsl^^j^lj ( _ 5 x k jil5^[l t_sjjjJl ^ jy3\ j\ ^^aiLJl 

jUJl L^ip ^jJsCj ^1 cuj^JI J^Ij» ^^2^*^ ^-6-° jc^-^' (t-"-^ i^j^ (^ 

L <Ln.a 4LuJL*JI A mbuJI iGp-Luia 

Jj M ^LdUJl 4_^.L~JU ii^iwJl <jjLj«^J| 4J*L~_<J| i«^_<J ^jlsaxJI jup 

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JIaJH ^ « t yJuJl JUJl» 5^So ^_~, o^i JLij .184_ 108 t((»1975 (.jjOJj^ :>jy~£j\) 
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.145 _ 128 t(j.l996 ^^ J^j^y. ^jr ^ : (T^^ tUJOu Uj *>^^l 



f-\ •/ } i t4_a_~J_3 c^tjjLj -L^-j-j jl JaJLi l \S-^-oJ\ /_« . A-w^lwVl O^/jJLoJI 
modus 4-U.P Ja^>Jj ci^-^aJl '-^ /V^ 9 j*-^ aJ^Lp C->li JsUJlj i(<j_^Jb-) 

. aJlp *lj^>Vl JaJLwJj to^^~«iJ ^operandi 

(_5j->o ! Lj^^Ltt^-iJ (e^jJj^- o j-^ > ' ic^*-* j-* jL~*_«J ojjLJI ^jLjcoJI Jj>-I 

. Silp ^Ul iijl^ J^-i j-a jL*^Jl l -~ ? ~ • ■jj-Lw ■^•J ajI .Jip jL*-«Jl jj-,^" 

^i JULj . (3) ««J_>JLJl ^ Sj^. U,Lj1» Nl o^J j-jUJli : iJ^LJl 

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^yb . f"_^J>j^Jl oil* J_p- <jjUax» A^Jjj^iLu* oLviji jJLp ^Li LJ5 iwiL>t» 
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. i>j-A*Jl j\ 1^p\ja1\ oJL* Ji<J i^Lc-j JjjJl societas *+&y> 

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l ye- *3jj^~w l^Jj : <_£jJ>-^n JjjJl oLJjj-~wa ^ J-4jI oLJjj_w^i ^^^^sJl 

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_ 1939)j (^1918 _ 1914) {j~~*\i* J>i . i*JLi. cf 1989 i~u ,L^lj ^1914 
• £dJ^' (^ \jz**i ^Jj^^ J^\ Cy drr^' <_s* <-S>*^ ^ oJjjJl t(*1945 

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• J^> ^J (_yV ^ i^-LW AjJjJ V^ l/° V^J t_S* ^ > ^= > ~ Ij-iLtf' 

frbl ^ IXAAJ-I ^lk>l^l ^^J^J-J^ ij^-J LL-^w* ^yij-XJl jj-'Vl ^^j 



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jl l J~*-i N I J-» jl ^i- . «-JL>Jl (JJULJ ol^xs , k«-o jLi <_p _^~p jl5 L»-;jj 
(J diJS jl ^-IjJl ja ^oijJl dUS ^ \h\S IjLjJl JiU ^jjJ! «^>«Jl 
j* 9y ^LupI ^jIp ^Lij^Jl iU«J*yij oJt^uJl oLNjJl oJb JiJ . A-a-*^. 
^J olJLftbw Jup i Js- jlijiaJl jiJl . OjUl < r >y > ^\ J*>^~ ^UjJLuJl jl_pJl 
: IS^lJL* L^>-La J^-ij coils' ^iJl i>JuJl LI ..A all j^o 5Ju_>- Jjj>- l.o.^,".—i L« 

ijjs-jl^^Nl i>JL*Vl t y2Jja3 L"JlaU>i t(/»1963) Ajj_^JI *— 'jUcJl jla>- SJUkUw 
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LI Jl$_^J jj Ul ^ iL^Jl jl ^J> .(^1975) l _ f ^Jjt oLJULI <.(a1968) 

jlS^o (_$l Jb ^j <>Jb>*LJl ^^1 ^ ^ t^SjJl i_il ^^ji^JLj t ^JaP (jy ~^y? 

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l_Jb>- J-a (jJ^JJl) (j/? 2: II J|_>- #|jlix^»l 8*L*Lj MloJLo ibjLJl i—J^^jJl J*>U- 

j\ ^^J[^\ ^ lJLki-Vl dJJS jl5 Jij . ^Sll ^Jb>^ ^i LrT ^\^\ >ULp\JI 
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jj^ ^J-J-i ^-i- liJLP dJJS »ii Ujj . Lv?j^ai- ^yLij^JI iU^jNl t A-^j-jJl 
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. iJL 7^a: J Ujj ii_pJl i~J«j» jL ^^-U *1990 i— Ju^> [^Vl ^-i^o] 

<C5U-a * r , . ■/ ? ■" jvJ l$S^l»l jvXl ^jjl <Jl*iVlj CjULJIj OljIjiJl dDU ipj^^x^J 

J4-0 ^1 (^1991 _ 1990) [iJliJl] ^UJI v ^ J U^lj dUS jlS 

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^l^aJl dJUi tdJL-^l _ i^^Jl ^ ^1995 _ 1992 j^, ^ jb ^JJl ^1^1 
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dJUu Jlo -5_»^-j o| • ^il ^"j-^ j^j - ^A;' cy^J^' ^L>oMl jl*j Lo iJb- 

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. AUaj ry>j ^ <Upl_«j>JI jv^Jlji v^P L^jJl«j>ij ^Jl jlxs il 

jlSL- ajJI ?-jjJ ^1 aIIjjJI ijJu>Jl ^ Jl1w»c^J jLSo^I oIa (JAj^Jj 

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(j>1969 t^^j ^j^-^jLJ^ ijji—S'jl : jjjjL-^jI) *j>>»JI J_^- oVli" *jjI tjJ^H •! j^' ^7) 
i ((.1990 1^ ^>J r . ^^•LS' :^^»15) JjjUI oLil tjj-^U- . _,j ^Jliil J^iJI 

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.14 t((.1993 /2/19) ^jSl >wbJI JpJL. «i.\l oL? ^ii» (9) 



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4JUb>- ^Ic- f-j^il! Ja.JL.il> JiUj jJij *-'jjjjl (j-rHJ u- 'UasJ ^j-l (_i*l* i«j 

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&»JJl ^ UiUJl p ^Jl ol^Jl jl j-p . JS" jJUJ! ^ J^JaxlJ i>JU 

jljf jl -XaJ . «i*<?U- jl AjLi^.l» cJJi £JjJtJl Sj^Vl oJLgJ ^^ww-Ul J~— ^i 

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jl t j SI t LJLp jU ,_JjjJl jjLoJlj jjJUJl o^j^j LJU JbjJ L5 bl» : Jli 

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»-«Vl jjJl5» iXjbc* o.ilf-1 ^Jl^^j L-a 4?-*>UoJ ^J\ Aj-Utj dj&^> A^JiuJl 

. «L^i jljill <~*> iJU^-j L^La^- cjUI *-a (. Is*? j-a?- ^y jl ^jAz^j <.IJj>c*3\ 
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oL Ijl^JI dJUi jl ^p . « J^p ^jIp aip ^J^JI iJUaj oNl b-Jj» LL-A- 
: L-L-.I i-JL-Jl Lfj jili < _ 5 jJ\ cjLL^JI oJLS" jJj . (d^jL-s^y ^l r-^^4 

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jus ad bellum »_jy*Jl j-i Jp- ^y> *y>*5 iJLJ} olLlk". < A^-saJ S~L>JLJI 

:iJLJl ^l^p^ (J^-JuJl t( _JLJ^I JJ^-uJl w (JU o-j^j^Jl ^.U-Jl 
iLiJl J^-l ^> ji--XxJJ l~x*s^j> ~*-?.y& JjJJl oL Jji" ^1 pIjNI dJLL" ^1 

^Lol y aJIS f-^yJJl J^iJ jV SJlo^« jiJ jj lfrl£Jj jUJUl y ^^J^-^l 

iK^wJD) jl ^ J IS .jjJl^-~Jl jl iL,-J tljijjlj Ji* ,JUJI ^ <_s^4 
(-J^jcJI USLL» ^ i~>-jUJl i^UJl Jujw (JLc- Lf>-ly ^1 U-UJI ^"Vl 
jl Ji^Nj . "^^I oUI^ J jUiJl J^-dL L^ojJu ^Jl oj>Jl Jl* 

4-kjj^Jlj Ukl^JLo-O^Ul »-SUJl 4_JiJl ^ ^^J.Sjl))., I^lj Jlj la JUJI 
f-Uai-Vl ,*-^«->- ?tw>«~aJ JjjJ US' lil» I i_JLi>l <ul ^^c- (lij j j jLvPl ejlSojl 

i_JUjJI jljiJl SbkJl Jlp Sjli)l L^jkl jAj jS\j . «<^i~^l jlJdJl jj_p 
yLp ^1*ij : ^ v~A> ^LAr^ 1 i-~«->- ^^i-j JJ^-oJl oLSloj jUj Jjj- 

4_L~-jJl yk ^.Jl^^JI SjjJl jl j_« SjihjLo jj_£j jl tVjt tilijjJl S^.^1 

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i»<^>-LJl aJ^s-jJl iL^^Jl ( yk ixJL.w^JI SjJiJl jl __^P lijLj^l t V>*-<Jl cjLaJtJ 

l»J Ja : Jlj-, ^J» ^a cUtf t ju N . kULs-I ^oj^b^Jl ^li^Jl £» J^>UdJ 
a^-ojt >»!>LJJ y^J jl L»Jta LJLp» ?Lw^L.jJujl!I oljL>Jl ^ ^LLlJ 
*Ja^J hjSL-S' c->LL-p iSLa Jjk» : L~~i;l JLJ jl tli3U iojhjj . «^>jiJl 

jr*^ J^"j <( •/W'jJj ^yUvsJI jvjj^jI t-yjp y ^j'j~°J JjA«^o jlxJto U>» /»LaJI 
^1? ^ Jj Mi Ij-i-Ij I — «U- Lot . Lulj <. «?Jjjk!l ^-UJI yLp jjJL>CL~a 

?-^uj ^y^j J <ol iw^saJ f-jL- *^ . f'^j^^fl y i^y i>jLvia U Aa» : Jlj~* 
_^liJl iip ♦jh'Sl oIjLip^I cJl5 Ljjl _l5I <Jl jJ> . «iiLLo ^U-«» dii: jl 



(J^- SJL^Lxi . ^jjJl jjJliaJl jV ^j> ■^-*->. f ; ■/?" *-> OjJjI 8^^-Ml iXJas- jl 

iojli Sj^ap ^y* SJl>JLJI ^Vl (JlV ls* *—^«Jl jus ad bellum ^->j*A\ 5"* 1 
oJL^S-c- ^^i ilijjJl o^-^lj 4_s^L>Jl ^JL> o_LJLs> Lol . Jb-JcJl *_Ip Ij^o ^^Lp 
^Sll jl jLJ>l j>«lj **»- ,>• Jj-^l ,>■% ^j^ ^1 &. C jl >" ^^ 

jLi J.* . "jj^T j^SC; jl loj! lil ci^'S/l jIjJlJI ^i jl~j)Jl 3y^- ^U^l 
Ljkwo ja-j LjJ t Ji-jdl (.Jlp Iju* (Jlp ^a^I iJU Lksli' Lji ^yLA; jl dJUi 

jjiJ ^~>- eiJlf* Lajl (v^l-lL jlj Jj jjiJ^o jlSU J5 ^ ^uJl jl ^jic- 
JIjJlJI J-i-b dJUi ^ L«_) tiib jl jLSL<Jl IJla ^yi S.ja-3_o jl~J^I Jj-L>- 

Lj-JjJl i—L— jj ■/■>" ^J ojjUxJo Jj J^Jl IJLft JLLP _y^l >~ ii V . 4-~^>-^l 
*j>«-~^ Uj ^yL^-ljJl c _ s — L — 51 ^%Si\ AJ\ Ji^aJl *A~fr«J (_5^ ej-i^i L4JI ^jIp 
i<jaj*y ilijjJl Sj^^l o^5b f-y*y iJ^»-f- <_y* *^Uj • <Li»ljJUjjJl CjL^>-jJ| «^ 
(J JL>- ^jL*^- jL»_sA] LjAJa* ^^lyLojjJl ?-*>U^>^il Jj^i • A^JaljA^jJJl |^5^>Jl 
4_*3jyL« oULx-o JJL>tXJ ■ j-'LJl jlj W ,,h\ jji <Uj-L^«j!j JuJL"«.^....>-)l ^i jL«J^/l 

ji-jdl LfJ L-> t ilJjjJl <JL-pV| j-?*I ^sj^Jiil oJlS bl -ti^l 5> L-.L- 

f-LJj SjcJwiJl olpllaall fc_A3j jl *^J iJjiiw ivs^j j~by i J>S- j^UJl ^tL~«Jl 
ijJJj jU t Jlj-»Ml oJLA LLi /^ <_$ll«-> ">Liil~w° Oj>C^> <uisl^i^ji CjLvoJ^^o 
jl ^ JwJx^Jl ^ ^jjJl (JL«JI (Jb- J^>^5 Jj N • Laib\Jl ^j>o oljia>Jl 
JjjJl ikjjb- /f-o oJLw-LiJl i-i^ocJl jv^^Jl JLSLilj hjy\s£j3\ iJljl i^JJa^j 

Lbt>tj L»J jL^Jul jj" . L^JlSU ^s LlalyLkjjJl j^>Jl i<JaJI rz^jjj aj^L^JI 

. «L.I ^1 

li^iNlj t^jSII J*>U>I IJl* jLS" coU5Ul ^ U5U oj^ L. ^ 

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645 3J^\ hj^Vj aA»\>^a\\ 

/»1945 Jl*j Lo pi g I la'. < A^JJ jj-* J-JLi __ rr P jJL* ^\ jS-Xi ilijjJl Oj_^VL< 

_^liJl iblpl iJLwd ^"yu Ji 5Jbti<Jl ^Vl Jjli~s (j^i (*J ajJlx«j __^~Jl JIp 
j^j^I ( _ r JL>r^ s-Lap! (JLijI JL»J^-Ii . 1 $ .Lp j->aj jL5 ( jJI cjL^>-jjJJ Uij 
U^-ipI li| ojlj jS- Ijl> (jllwJl Jp JjJOcJI dJUS Jio l5 1p i~^>Jl t v r:r *j|jJ] 
Xjs yLU ajj>JI ^1999 u^> ^a ^-jjj d^r^' <*j-i>«jl l5^' cs^-*~^' t-dij^Jl 

•u^jJLj j;wJcJl tilJi Jiu <u1p (JjJa^j -ii L»j j-SCaiSl ^Jlp ^^3^0 ^L^iaI jl ^^p 
<up ^ju d)l5 U jU ; UjlSjj IJjJl>J aJJuap __,-^pI jJL j! -y /•■* Jl (J^ 

J-« i! JL; 4-o»jjJ eJ_JL<U <LpL_v2j| (Olp^ -y IpaJ jl ' a ^ g " r- Ij-i ,>* t dr^d (*J 
JjJul *_«JLpx-<JI (_$^J ^Jl SjiLrJl ^Jy>J)\ SJ_Jip L^Jl ! oJL>JL>- oJ-Jip *jJLij 

jl^r^J Jlp » *1j JJii LjIj L5j . L^^v^Jl j»li)l JLp iuJli Societas 4jwL>- 

. LJM^Pjj Ju<i 4^Ju~Jl SjJiJl aIo^u^I Jp jjLJl flJuiV L*jj-«>j "(^J'" -\^Ij 

Lai . 4_^<JJL» 4_JL~Jl ._^3 j ^A <1)L>~J J I JjjJLs-J . 4Jw~x_o *Jj L~u« ^i Lijj^»- 

jljUj . ^^LwJl . )^J<Jl jj^ ^y ^j-^-^Ij o^^i-^l ^>ra.,r?1l i _^i aJsI^aojjJI 

LL»j>J ^^J-jj i^Jal^JLjjjJl JjjJLi :^ji>-Vl /^o L»_alj^-j jL^jji jLu^aJI 

ip^Jl ojL.*-) LjL?-I aJJ jLiu -up /"-sl-^ Jl-^i^rJ' "Ijjj-'I (_r^j <J^ ^-* 
JJU^oj Jij-o ^rt^J cr* 5 ^ cl^^^— I dUi ol ^-^ • i^wo^l jl £jjjJl aJIj^JlJI 
L^j>J|j jv^fJl AjiAjC; *la~5y ^ySL— *>l5L!l L^oj ^ a o ; iJlj^JlJl jV ojLjJlJ 



^j<-Ji[j ^j^ f^^* j-* ("1945 Jl«j L> Jji Societas *-<,sj>u<J> . a~JLJI 
ioji- aJj^ Sj~-I SJ-JLc- iiJL>Jl ^ l$Jl . ^y^ljJl j^i* j^ iolJb- AJ Uj Jo 

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yr^^S ijj^i . l£jj»l ^ jj^^siS^I 1»IL^> Weltanschauung iJjj-LJhJii ^p 
,JLJI *_*J (3jJJ i-*»ji ^LJli'-J ?-Lj j| L*i iiL>Li <Ljj^" \s\lsS l *jj ■.-"; 
J^-~- ^ i_jjjj»Jl ^yjjJ^J ijpljJl t_jL_— Vl ^^^j t^* - • • • *-^?\jJ>-*-t^\j 

( _ r ^jj s-^r^ ^^5 oA>JL<Jl jwNl T-'iL^I ^l SjPjJLj . d^j^Nl ^la./>l 

. Jaii iu^p «- ) 4^ p ^ ^JuLi iojS' oJLap 0j5sj jl (J^ ?~j^>jj tyj r^> ^jjj^ 
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SjL~JI ,JLp <LvjI«JI <LwmuL-VI »jlp»L»JI jv-»VI o-l~4P <ui iJj£jl*j (i_j Jjl ryi) 

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jlS' iliipMl dJJi JiU jj jjd^L* Jli Oij . »^_JL jvj^j UJLp 0_j^j jl iiix~« CjL;jj^«j>- 

.41 _38 txliii 



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vp ijLj 5j^5Lv>oJI oLlLojJl oJL* Jjl« JuaiiJ o^Jij^Jl JjjJl dLhJ i^jJsJl 

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Si^pJl ^y jl ^yJ-Jl ^a . iLLLJl 5^>Jl ^y L f^r^\ <_s^SLw«Jl ( J^-JlJ1 
ISIj . jljJJl ja Lj\A\ &}\ oULS JLaiu-l Jl U»l^jjJl iJaibU ^jJJl 
J~Ji]l Ijla ^y> ^y—L— k-iJLA (_$I jLi ^ jl* iU.-?w J-^-^Jl ^^ J^ olS' 
ijji o^-l Jj dj-iJl Societas «.»£>■■« Jj_po aJL*^> ^ 9-y ^s- i_sjJa^> jl 
. jLjNl (jji^j iisl^AojjJl Jj^j J! oJc^ww^ (Universitas i<t«U-) 

lfra../?jj <lJLp L^oL»<J^ (^"J ck ' (»-5L*Jl J^ L^^-^ J i«jj^Jl ^-f-j-il jj-^ 

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jl ^5 JjiJ jl tjjjj -h W ^y> jl j*s- . ^^ L-wJl t_iij-<Jl diJi J-J J} JjJlw«j 

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^ t <J5 (JUJI -Ail ^yJl CJj^Jl iJl^JJl ^1 iU^ ^ dJUu-j . (36) U>LJ 
<~U-b LLs L^jL^^j tiolp i^L^oj Jj tA^p|^i» L\~^-J ^^s- t^Vj-LxJl jjiJl 

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'y-Af er^J J-f tii>^- oj_^J aJj^J jl L-Ju> jli JjjJl tiJLlLj ALa zy^-j 

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^ <dl aI (.Lol ^1 JUJl J*>*j j! iJslji^jJJ t y-USGl j-lJl x-JaX^o Jjfc 

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j^Lp /»1945 i~- Jl^o ^-j^jJl i~> UJl ^Ij t<L«li>Jl ^^i^Jl* ii^j t(^JLJl) 
<^Jl~JI SjiJLj L^p f-lijJlj L^j ciLL<aJl *_^>o ^1 ijykjjjJl i*_Jj| tJiVl 

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JUl cu^Jl ^1 JjjJI dUui . (24) cu,J^Jl JjjJI f Lk; ^ jUwjNlj 
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. Alojuj^l jl AUi^lJl olj^Jl 

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j L / ? ." J I ^^JLp a-J^uJI ^c-jjLJI ajI$J ^jJlp ^UJI JuJL>Jl _ ^^JJs-^Jl LaLjiji 

jLiJaj ,*JUJl jL^jM tio-WxJl AjjJaJ jj.,/?"j i<u>-lj jj-o aJI^JJI AjslyLojJtSl 

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Lol . <duoLi aJ j5j t aj J-j- jj i iijLiu a^oJLkJI a_»<L~J| -jS- <L/LJLaJl LoL «5ji 
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. Societas JjAJI **i>o *-» L>j-W jwiil^u 

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. ^bSCJl jjji-» j^ Siy^U ^-iJj^Jl (jj-i* (j* ii-*>Ul cjl—LiVl (V ^" • ({"1996 



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